文章摘要
李启成,何书耕.用振幅变化长短时均值比实现地震预警中P波自动拾取[J].地震工程学报,2019,41(1):138-146. LI Qicheng,HE Shugeng.Automatic Picking up of P-wave First Arrival in EarthquakeEarly Warning Using STA/LTA Method[J].China Earthquake Engineering Journal,2019,41(1):138-146.
用振幅变化长短时均值比实现地震预警中P波自动拾取
Automatic Picking up of P-wave First Arrival in EarthquakeEarly Warning Using STA/LTA Method
投稿时间:2017-11-09  
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1000-0844.2019.01.138
中文关键词: 地震预警;P波初至;振幅变化;STA/LTA变换
英文关键词: earthquake early warning;first arrival of P-wave;amplitude change;STA/LTA transform
基金项目:辽宁省教育厅项目(LJYL040);断层滑动速度研究(551610001219)
作者单位
李启成 辽宁工程技术大学, 辽宁 阜新 123000 
何书耕 辽宁工程技术大学, 辽宁 阜新 123000 
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中文摘要:
      地震P波到时快速、精确的自动拾取是实现地震预警的第一步。目前所有P波到时自动拾取方法都需要进一步考虑准确度问题,据此提出用"振幅变化"长短时均值比方法拾取P波到时。研究表明引进"振幅变化"作为特征函数比Allen的"振幅变化平方"更能突显地震波初至时刻的"突变"特征。对"振幅变化长短时均值比方法"和Allen的"振幅变化平方长短时均值比方法"进行抗噪音分析表明,在较低信噪比条件下,Allen方法不能准确地拾取P波到时,而新方法依然能较准确地拾取P波到时。在较高信噪比条件下,用两种方法拾取的160个MS>4.0地震P波到时,其误差大都在允许范围内,但新方法拾取的准确度略高。新方法可以看做是对长短时均值比方法的拓展。
英文摘要:
      The first step to realize earthquake early warning is to pick P-wave arrival time quickly, accurately, and automatically. In the current automatic methods of picking up P-wave arrival time, the anti-interference ability needs to be encountered; thus, in this study, the short-term average/long-term average (STA/LTA) method for detecting amplitude changes is proposed for picking up P-wave arrival times. The study shows that compared with the Allen algorithm, the amplitude change can be used as the characteristic function to highlight the mutation feature of seismic wave arrival time. Moreover, using the STA/LTA method, the pick-up deviation of seismic wave arrival times caused by the interference can be reduced. Analyses of anti-interference in the STA/LTA method and Allen algorithm show that in the presence of a large amplitude interference, the Allen algorithm cannot pick up P-wave arrival times because the peak value does not appear in the P-wave first arrival position; however, the anomaly in the P-wave arrival time position is still obvious when using the proposed method. Under less amplitude disturbance, the two methods are used to pick up the P-wave arrival time of 160 MS ≥ 4.0 earthquakes, and the accuracy of the new method is slightly higher. The new method can be seen as an extension of the STA/LTA transform method.
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